Day_186: Timeline for Hurricane Sandy

Moving forward, it is crucial that we continue to prioritize disaster management and invesin mitigation measures to minimize the impact of future disasters. This includes implementing resilient infrastructureconducting regular risk assessments, and engaging with communities to ensure their activparticipation in preparednesand recovery efforts. Additionally, we must continue to improve our communication strategies, utilizing various channels to disseminate timely and accurate information to the public. By learning from the lessons of Hurricane Sandy, we can strengthen our disaster management plans and better protect our communities in the face ofuture challenges.

Hurricane Sandy, which struck the East Coast of the United States in October 2012, is often cited as a case where disaster management and the use of a disaster management timeline played a crucial role in mitigating impacts and facilitating recovery. The response to Hurricane Sandy involved extensive pre-event planning and post-event recovery efforts that spanned the four phases of disaster management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.

1. Mitigation
Prior to Hurricane Sandy, New York had already invested in some mitigation measures based on lessons learned from previous storms, though the scale of Sandy’s impact highlighted the need for more extensive measures.

How New York Used Mitigation:
The city had begun to implement its PlaNYC initiative, aimed at preparing the city’s infrastructure for the impacts of climate change, including rising sea levels and more frequent severe weather events.

2. Preparedness
As Hurricane Sandy approached, New York’s state and city officials took several steps to prepare for the impending storm.

How New York Used Preparedness:
Evacuation Orders: Mandatory evacuation orders were issued for residents in low-lying areas, known as Zone A, affecting approximately 375,000 people.
Public Information: Information was disseminated through multiple channels, including social media, to keep the public informed about the storm’s progress and safety measures.
Transit Shutdown: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) shut down subway, bus, and commuter rail services in anticipation of the storm to protect the system and its users.

3. Response
Once Hurricane Sandy made landfall, the response phase was immediate, with efforts focused on life-saving measures and ensuring the safety of the affected population.

How New York Used Response:
Emergency Services: First responders and emergency services worked tirelessly to rescue those stranded by the floodwaters and to provide immediate aid.
Power Restoration: Efforts were quickly organized to restore power to the millions of residents left in the dark.
Supply Distribution: Critical supplies, including food and water, were distributed to residents, especially in the hardest-hit areas.

4. Recovery
The recovery from Hurricane Sandy has been long-term, with efforts ongoing in some areas years after the storm.

How New York Used Recovery:
Rebuilding Infrastructure: Significant investments were made to rebuild and strengthen the city’s infrastructure, including electrical grids, transportation systems, and coastal defenses.
Resilience Planning: The storm’s impacts led to a heightened focus on resilience and the development of more robust plans to protect against future disasters, such as the “Rebuild by Design” competition that sought innovative solutions for coastal protection.
Community Support and Rebuilding: Efforts were made to support affected communities through the rebuilding process, including financial assistance for homeowners and businesses.

Lessons Learned and Implementation
The response to Hurricane Sandy highlighted the importance of preparedness and the need for robust mitigation and recovery planning. New York’s experience with Sandy has informed subsequent disaster management efforts, emphasizing the need for resilient infrastructure, comprehensive planning, and community involvement in disaster preparedness and recovery strategies.

The use of a disaster management timeline in the context of Hurricane Sandy demonstrated how proactive and reactive measures can mitigate the impact of such events and aid in the recovery process. It also showed the importance of continuous improvement in disaster management plans, incorporating lessons learned to enhance future preparedness and response efforts.


Rosen, Y., & Yakubov, N. (2013). Hurricane Sandy: Lessons Learned from the Severely Damaged Coney Island Hospital, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 28(6), 643.

Barthel, E. R., Pierce, J. R., Speer, A. L., Levin, D. E., Goodhue, C. J., Ford, H. R., Grikscheit, T. C., & Upperman, J. S. (2013). Delayed family reunification of pediatric disaster survivors increases mortality and inpatient hospital costs: A simulation study. *Journal of Surgical Research*, 184(1), 430.

Deitchman, S. (2013). Enhancing Crisis Leadership in Public Health Emergencies. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 7(5), 534.

Schmeltz, M. T., González, S. K., Fuentes, L., Kwan, A., Ortega-Williams, A., & Cowan, L. P. (2013). Lessons from Hurricane Sandy: A Community Response in Brooklyn, New York. *Journal of Urban Health*, 90(5), 799.

Freund, A., Zuckerman, N., Luo, H., Hsu, H.-H., & Lucchini, R. (2014). Diesel and Silica Monitoring at Two Sites Following Hurricane Sandy. *Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene*, 11(9), D131.

Solecki, W., & Rosenzweig, C. (2014). Climate Change, Extreme Events, and Hurricane Sandy: From Non-Stationary Climate to Non-Stationary Policy. *Journal of Extreme Events*, 01(01), 1450008.

Johnson, D. A. (2023). Exploring the Effectiveness of 311 Data in Disaster Recovery and Response: A Case Study of Hurricane Sandy in New York City. *Academic Commons*. Columbia University.

Petkova, E. P., Beedasy, J., Oh, E. J., Sury, J., Sehnert, E. M., Tsai, W.-Y., & Reilly, M. J. (2017). Long-term Recovery From Hurricane Sandy: Evidence From a Survey in New York City. (Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness).

Federal Emergency Management Agency. (n.d.). Remembering Sandy Five Years Later. Retrieved from

These references cover a range of topics related to the impact of Hurricane Sandy, including healthcare challenges, family reunification, crisis leadership, community responses, monitoring of environmental hazards, policy changes due to climate change, the effectiveness of using public data for disaster recovery, and long-term recovery challenges faced by residents.