Disaster Risk Reduction」カテゴリーアーカイブ

Day_148: The World Largest Disaster Links

Below is the disaster links site which was created a long time ago. I will renew this site step by step. In addition, some are still only in Japanese and original disaster-related pictures are omitted, so I will consider these also.

http://disasters.weblike.jp/linklibrary.html

The below disaster-related world organization’s link site is the one which was built when I was working at NIED DIL and still working as one of the products there. I am very happy to know that but I would like to renew this also to contribute to the institute with my gratitude in the near future, I hope.

https://dil.bosai.go.jp/link/world/english/index.html

Day_144 : Disaster Information 4

 

The update of some useful disaster information websites are as follows:

Flood list: an excellent source of flood disasters

floodlist.com/tag/thailand

AHA center- adinet: disasters in ASEAN countries can be browsed and also checked in detail.

 

DRH-Asia: cases on local knowledge and their applications related to the technologies in Asian countries can be found.

http://drh.bosai.go.jp/

The post of the disaster information 3 is the followings:

Day_69(rev) : Disaster Information 3

——

Introduced you the following disaster information.
1) General info. 2) Database 3) Update info

1) General info is the first website to check.
1. UNISDR

unisdr

2) Database is the base to analyze the target disasters.
1. EM-DAT

emdat

2. Desinventar

disinventar

The disinventar is very accurate and detailed, however, the listed
countries are limited.

3) Update info. Is the website, we can check on a daily basis.
These are also useful to overview of the recent disasters.
1. ReliefWeb

reliefweb

2. ADRC

adrc

3. ROSE

ROSE

4. GDACS

GDACS

Concerning, data on demographic, socioeconomic, and others, we should
clarify the levels from national to local.

County Level
1. UN data

undata

2. World Bank open data

world bank data

3. CIA world factbook

world fact book

Provincial (States) Level
1. Government Office (National Statistics Office,etc.)

Community Level
1. Local Government Office
When we investigate the disasters, we firstly go to the ADRC (if the country is Asia) and Relief Web to see some significant numbers such as the death toll and affected numbers. Then, check the disaster history of the target areas by EM-DAT and Desinventar (if the country is listed). We also overview the county’s background by CIA world fact book and check some socio-economic data by UN or World bank open data. In addition, the local government or community data of the target area are significant to be accessed. These are the primary action to grasp the whole picture of the disaster.

Day_140 : Natural Disasters in Europe (2) Vajont Dam Collapse


europe-pic
Figure   The Europe

Concerning hydrological, meteorological, and climatological disasters, heavy rain, and storm disasters are caused by a low  pressure in the Iceland area developed in a winter season. A cold atmospheric current coming from Arctic gain a warmer vapor stream from the Gulf Stream and develop the strong atmospheric depression in the area. This causes the strong winds and high tidal waves along the coastal areas of the North Sea. Netherlands and England can be highlighted. Netherlands had storm surges in 1530 and 1570. The death toll were approximately 400,000(1530) and 70,000(1570) for each. The 1953 depression made 1800 death toll. This disaster reached to England also. England’s disasters were the 1703 Thames river flood and the 2003 Heatwave. The temperature was 8-10 over than an average year on August 2003 (Day_38).

Danube, Elbe, Rhine, and Seine rivers are on the gentle slope make slow inundations caused by heavy rains. On August 2002, the Central Europe had a heavy rain, this makes Danube and Elbe rivers overflows in Germany, Czech, Austria, and Hungary. The death toll is approximately 100, affected is over 100,000. Historical Buildings in the city such as Prague,Dresden, and so on along the rivers were also inundated.

Alps mountains have had landslides, debris flows, slope failures, and so on. The particular example is the landslide in Dolomites, North Italy in 1963. Overflows from Vajont dam caused by large-scale landslide attacked the village in downstream ares.The death toll is approximately 2600.

A brief explanation

 

An Interviews based explanation

On August 2003, the West Europe had 8-10 degrees celsius higher than the average. This heat wave killed 15000 in France, 7000 in Germany, 4000 in Spain, 4000 in Italy, and so on, totally 35000.

In summer 2010, Russia had a heat wave and this makes wildfire. The wildfire was spread out and it took over 1.5 months to extinguish.Many villages were destroyed by the fire. The Moscow was covered by harmful smoke. Over 55,000 were killed by the heat wave and the smoke in Russia.

To be continued……

Day_138 : Natural Disasters in Europe (1)

Natural disasters in Europe mainly consist of hydrological, meteorological, climatological, earthquake and volcano eruption disasters.

europe-pic
Figure   The Europe

Earthquake disasters mainly occur in the Aegean Sea, the south-western coast of Balkan Peninsula, and the southern part of Italy. Volcanoes are active in the central and southern parts of Italy, the southern Aegean Sea, and Iceland area.

Concerning hydrological, meteorological, and climatological disasters, heavy rain, and storm disasters are caused by a low  pressure in the Iceland area developed in a winter season. A cold atmospheric current coming from Arctic gain a warmer vapor stream from the Gulf Stream and develop the strong atmospheric depression in the area. This causes the strong winds and high tidal waves along the coastal areas of the North Sea.

Netherlands and England can be highlighted. Netherlands had storm surges in 1530 and 1570. The death toll were approximately 400,000(1530) and 70,000(1570) for each. The 1953 depression made 1800 death toll in 1953. This disaster reached to England also. England’s disasters were the 1703 Thames river flood and the 2003 Heatwave. The temperature was 8-10 over than an average year on August 2003.

With regard to earthquake disasters, Italy, Greece, and Portugal are the main countries to be affected.

The following past article explains the recent earthquake cases in Italy.

Day_131 : Italy-Recent earthquake and past earthquake disasters (2)

To be continued…..

Day_137 : Aging Asia to Natural Disasters -Thailand(2)-

Day_68 indicates Thai population in 2012 was 64,460,000 and the proportion of those over 65 is 8.6 percent (11 percent in 2016) compared to 3.1 percent in 1970. This shows that Thailand is facing an aging society and the World Population Prospects* predicts this trend will accelerate. This situation is not exclusively in Thailand, but can likewise be viewed in almost all Asian nations. In addition, Asia is the most vulnerable in terms of natural disasters such as 7 of 10 of the deadliest natural disasters (1980-2014) took place in this region(Day_79). The World Bank mentions how Thailand faces the aging society from an economic development perspective, however, we also need to recognize this from a disaster reduction viewpoint. Okushiri island case can give us a significant insight(Day_75). This gives us a challenge of how disaster-resilient society can be established in the situation.

The World Bank notices**:
The Thai population is aging rapidly. The declining share of the working-age population will affect economic growth.
– As of 2016, 11% of the Thai population (about 7.5 million people) are 65 years or older, compared to 5% in 1995.
-By 2040, it is projected that 17 million Thais will be 65 years or older – more than a quarter of the population.
-Together with China, Thailand has the highest share of elderly people of any developing country in East Asia and Pacific.
-The primary driver of aging has been the steep decline in fertility rates, which fell from 6.1 in 1965 to 1.5 in 2015, as a result of rising incomes and education levels and the successful National Family Planning Program launched in 1970.
-The working-age population is expected to shrink by around 11% as a share of the total population between now and 2040 – from 49 million people to around 40.5 million people.
This decline in the working-age population is higher in Thailand than in all other developing East Asia and Pacific countries, including China.

Day_79 : Disaster trends in developed and developing countries

Day_75 : Okushiri Island (2)

* World Population Prospects
https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/

** World Bank, 2016
Thailand Economic Monitor – June 2016: Aging Society and Economy

Disaster data and statistics can be referred by the following link:
http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/statistics/

Day_134 : Thailand Disaster Chronology (1) 2001-2012

The collected information on Thailand natural disasters 2001-2011.
This is a tentative version.

Date Places(Provinces, etc) Disaster Type Situations
2001.8.21 North, upper central, northeastern and eastern provinces Flood A flash flood swept down a mountainside through villages in Lomsak district
death:164 people
damage estimate :24.4 million dollars
2001.12.24 Southern Provinces Flood Thousands of people in southern Thailand fled their houses after heavy rains triggered floods.
2002.4.29 The Thailand’s largest refugee camp near the Myanmar border Storm A freak tropical storm has killed five people at the refugee camp. The storm made damaged about 300 bamboo shelters as it tore through the camp.Around 40,000 Karen people live in shelters near the Myanmar border.
2002.9.3 Northern Provinces Heavy Rain At least 14 people were killed and more than 20 were missing after their makeshift houses on the banks of an overflowing stream collapsed after heavy rain.
Death:39 people
Damaged house: 150,000
2002.9.18 Northern Provinces Mud Slide Some 800 people narrowly escaped a huge mudslide in northern Thailand on Tuesday as it swept through three villages in a tangle of uprooted trees and destroyed buildings, a district official said.
2002.10.4 Bangkok Flood Residents of the Thai capital, Bangkok, are bracing themselves for severe flooding following forecasts that floodwaters coming from the north of the country.
2003.10.26 Eight Provinces Flood Five days of heavy monsoon rains have brought severe floods to Thailand, killing a 13-year-old boy, forcing hundreds of people from their homes and disrupting road and rail transport, officials said.
Dead: 1 person
Affected: at least 200,000 people
(in 8 provinces)
Evacuated: more than 1,600 people
2003.12.14 Southern Provinces Flood Floods in Thailand have killed at least eight people and damaged tens of thousands of homes.
2004.12.24 Krabi, Trang, PhangNa, Phuket, Ranong, Saturn Tsunami On 26 December 2004, Tsunami occurred off the Sumatra Island killed 5,395, affected 58,550, and whose total loss was US$ 399.78 million in Thailand
2005.8.31 Northern Provinces (Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Sorn Provinces) Flood Over 100,000 families have been affected by severe flooding in Northern Thailand in the middle of August. Torrential rains which earlier in August hammered Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Sorn inundated more than 4 500 villagers’ homes in these three provinces alone leaving 11 people dead and making several roads impassable to small vehicles.
2005.12.18 Southern Provinces Torrential monsoon rains Torrential monsoon rains have wreaked havoc across Thailand’s south, killing 12 people and leaving two missing in the past week, officials said on Sunday. Seven of the victims died in two mudslides.
2006.05.23 Northern Provinces Flood,Mud Slide Heavy monsoon rains unleashed flash floods and mudslides in northern Thailand which killed at least 10 people, left 47 missing and thousands homeless, officials said on Tuesday.
2006.10.10 43 provinces in the country’s north, north-east and central Thailand Flood More than 32 dead in Thai floods since August 2006, reported on October 10.
2007.04.14 Trang Flood Flash floods killed at least 23 holidaymakers and injured more than 20 at three waterfalls in the southern Thai province of Trang on Saturday as they celebrated the Thai New Year, disaster officials said.
2008.04.27 Thak Flood Rains have continued pouring in Thak province, Thailand at least four consecutive days. Over 1,000 people are currently homeless.
2008.8.15 Nakhon Phanom Flood The disaster prevention special command center in Nakhon Phanom province is in the midst of assessing the damage caused by inundation in 12 districts. More than 100,000 people have been affected by flooding. Meanwhile, the death toll has reportedly stood at 1.
2008.09.08 North and Northeast Provinces Flood Heavy downpours due to a low-pressure trough and the south-western monsoon in the past week have triggered more flash floods and inundated villages and farmland in north and northeast Thailand. According to disaster officials, five people have been killed, 114,345 (34,182 families) have been affected.
2008.10.01 Northern, north-eastern and central provinces Heavy Rain The death toll from floods triggered by heavy monsoon rains has risen to 23, while nearly 230,588 people have been treated for water-related illnesses and injuries.
2008.09.31-10.01 Si Sa Ket Province Typhoon Typhoon Mekkahla hit between 31 September and 1 October 2008. The cyclone caused torrential rains which killed 32, affected 2,864,484 and whose total loss was US$ 21.6 million including Vietnam.
2008.11.19 Southern Provinces Flood 201,434 people affected, 10 people died and 190 families homeless (685 persons) from heavy rain in southern Thailand.
2008.12.08 Yala Flood After heavy rains in southern Yala province, Thailand, the Disasters’ Prevention Special Command Centre in Yala has issued warnings on 8 December 2008 to the people in the area to be cautious of potential hazards and flash floods after over 3,000 local families being affected.
2009.11.07 Southern border provinces Flood The flooding which started in the southern border province in Thailand so far killed 10 people
2010.08.13 Lampang Flood The flood struck the northern province of Lampang on Friday night (13 August 2010) with the water level as high as one meter. Over 1,200 households and 36 villages in 7 districts have been affected.
2010.10.16 Nakhon Ratchasima Flash Flood Nakhon Ratchasima has been ravaged as flash floods wreak havoc in the Northeast and Central Plains following heavy weekend monsoon rains.
2011.03 47 Provinces Drought The Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Thailand announced drought in 47 provinces.
2011.03.27 Southern Provinces Flash Flood Since 23 March 2011 there has been a prolonged heavy rainfall causing flash floods in many provinces in the South.
2011.07-2012.02 Provinces of Northern, Northeastern and Central Thailand along the Mekong and Chao Phraya river Flood Severe flooding occurred during the 2011 monsoon season in Thailand, beginning at the end of July and ceasing mid-January 2012. The flooding affected the provinces of Northern, Northeastern and Central Thailand along the Mekong and Chao Phraya river basins, as well as parts of the capital city of Bangkok. It resulted in a total of 813 deaths, 9.5 million people affected and economic damage of USD40 billion.
2011.08.03 North and the northeast provinces Tropical Storm, Flood Tropical Storm Nock Ten has caused continuous rainfalls in the north and the northeast of Thailand, causing floods in 15 provinces.
2012.06.06 Surat Thani Heavy Rain, Flood Continuous rain has caused flooding in five districts in Surat Thani province of southern Thailand, affecting 8,500 households and over 27,000 residents.
2012.09.12 Northern Provinces Flood Thousands have fled their homes in Northern Thailand after heavy rain caused a major river to overflow at the start of September.

Source: ADRC, Reliefweb, BBC, JICA, etc. (The source will be indicated)

Day_133 : Science, Technology, Population, and Lessons for DRR

Japanese people have tended to trust the government and science & technology so much.
These are one of what we learned from recent disasters. After the second world war, Japanese gov. has built high sea walls along the coastline especially potential risk areas all over Japan. We have also developed warning systems along with rapid economic growth. Not only those, but we have also developed soft countermeasures such as disaster education and training, especially after the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. After the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (GEJET) disaster, we have realized what has happened because of our over trust to the government and science&technology. This is why Japanese gov. has particularly focused on the community since the disaster, establishing a new frame on the community disaster planning in the disaster countermeasure basic act. The recovery plans on the affected coastal communities tended to change more integrated manners and so did disaster countermeasures than before, looks like turning back to the time when we did not have advanced science and technologies.

We need to know the limitations of the gov. and science&technology’s roles. We also can consider the demographic change to do the job for disaster risk reductions. For example, Japan is facing a severe aging society, so our government resources will be decreasing to cover the situations. We need to have more self-help and mutual help than public help.

Learning from the lessons and past wisdom with those considerations is also very important. “Inamura no Hi” is one of the important lessons we can learn from the past.

Day_88 : Inamura no Hi

“Inamura no Hi” is a story of a man who noticed a precursor of a large tsunami at the earliest stage and led village inhabitants to a higher ground by burning harvested rice sheaves. This story was based on a true story at the time of Ansei-Nankai Tsunami (1854), which claimed around 3,000 lives in the coastal areas of Western Japan (ADRC).

Hirokawa Town’s video well explains the background of the story in short and their tsunami disaster education.

 

 

 

Day_132_Area BCM (1)

In 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (GEJET) disaster and the Chao Phraya River flood disaster made huge economic damages. They are in the top 10 costliest natural disasters (The very top and the 7th) in the world as you can see the following table.

top10costliest_natdisasters

Source: NatCatSERVICE/Munich RE 2016

From the historical point of views, the disaster trends from human sufferings to economic damages. The following figure shows the economic damage tendency is increasing with time and we can see the year of 2011 was an outstanding.

disaster-trends-cost

Source: EM-DAT

Especially, the globalization of the economic activities reflect these damages.In the event of large-scale disaster, a business sector is limited in its abilities to cope with disaster without the cooperative approach taken by the stakeholders of the public and private sectors in those areas.

With this situation, the concept of the Area Business Continuity Management (Area BCM) was revealed. This is a cooperative approach by those who wish to improve capacity for continuity and/or early recovery of business in their area in the event of disasters that affect the entire area(AHA CENTRE et al., 2015).

[Reference]
AHA CENTRE, JICA, et al., (2015) Planning Guide for Area Business Continuity: Area BCM Toolkits Version 2

sponsored link

Day_125 : Shingen(-Zutsumi) Embarkment (2)

Those who can rule the water can also rule the country. This proverb became a reality, especially during the Sengoku period (Warring States Period) in Japan.

Day_85 : Shingen Embarkment

Shingen(-Zutsumi) embankment is a flood control system which was built over 400 years ago to protect the northern part of the Kofu Basin, the rich rice paddy areas of Kai Province. The name comes from the Daimyo (District Lord) Shingen Takeda. Shingen Takeda was one of the strongest Samurai Daimyo during the period. He controlled his soldiers well and so the floods.

shingenFigure: Shingen Embarkment**

In addition to Shingen-Zutsumi Embankment, there are also Bunroku-Zutsumi and Taiko-Zutsumi Embankments established by Shogun (Hideyoshi Toyotomi). The Circle Levee in Nobi Plain is also called that it was built during the time. However, there are still arguments that Samurai Daimyo could built such embankments or not because they required high technologies and a huge amount of human resources during the periods.

To be continued……

**Brochure (Information about Fuji river Flood Control)

Day_115 : Disaster Technology Websites

Introduce you two disaster technology websites. One is DRH Asia-Disaster Reduction Hyperbase. The other is Global DRR Technology.

1) DRH Asia
This site provides the qualified information about DRR technology. We can grasp the contents so easily. This makes it possible to transfer the DRR technology. The contents are coming from many Asian countries and reviewed by experts. The challenge is limited contents number.

The following is the example of the contents.
Earthquake Early Warning and its Application to Mitigate Human and Social Damages (Figure 1)

drh
Figure 1

We can understand the quality of the contents and availability.

2) Global DRR Technology
This site focuses on an online Community of Practice(CoP) in Disaster Risk Reduction(DRR). The contents volume is limited, however, the site can be checked easily. Especially, the case study site is visually nice.

The below site is the example of the case study site. (Figure 2)

global-drr-tech
Figure 2

 

[ad#ads1]