Disaster Information」カテゴリーアーカイブ

Day_145: Past Columns (in Japanese)

Past columns will be updated both in Japanese and English.

My past Japanese writings for an internet newspaper company and the research map researcher’s blog (Japan Science and Technology Agency’s site) can be checked in the followings, but the article of the news comany is not free also is not in English, in Japanese.




Day_144 : Disaster Information 4


The update of some useful disaster information websites are as follows:

Flood list: an excellent source of flood disasters


AHA center- adinet: disasters in ASEAN countries can be browsed and also checked in detail.


DRH-Asia: cases on local knowledge and their applications related to the technologies in Asian countries can be found.


The post of the disaster information 3 is the followings:

Day_69(rev) : Disaster Information 3


Introduced you the following disaster information.
1) General info. 2) Database 3) Update info

1) General info is the first website to check.


2) Database is the base to analyze the target disasters.


2. Desinventar


The disinventar is very accurate and detailed, however, the listed
countries are limited.

3) Update info. Is the website, we can check on a daily basis.
These are also useful to overview of the recent disasters.
1. ReliefWeb








Concerning, data on demographic, socioeconomic, and others, we should
clarify the levels from national to local.

County Level
1. UN data


2. World Bank open data

world bank data

3. CIA world factbook

world fact book

Provincial (States) Level
1. Government Office (National Statistics Office,etc.)

Community Level
1. Local Government Office
When we investigate the disasters, we firstly go to the ADRC (if the country is Asia) and Relief Web to see some significant numbers such as the death toll and affected numbers. Then, check the disaster history of the target areas by EM-DAT and Desinventar (if the country is listed). We also overview the county’s background by CIA world fact book and check some socio-economic data by UN or World bank open data. In addition, the local government or community data of the target area are significant to be accessed. These are the primary action to grasp the whole picture of the disaster.

Day_141 : Flood disasters in Thailand : 14 deaths are reported in south (7 Dec. 2016)

Thai News mentioned that “Thailand declares disaster zones after floods kill 14“.
The created National Disaster Risk Assessment Mapping indicates flood disaster countermeasure is the first priority in Thailand(Day_93 ).

Day_93: Natural disasters in Thailand – National Disaster Risk Assessement Mapping

The Thai Disaster Chronology also suggests that southern provinces of Thailand are the most vulnerable areas to the floods (Day_134,135). We can learn from the data.

Day_134 : Thailand Disaster Chronology (1) 2001-2012

Day_135 : Thailand Disaster Chronology (2) 2013 – 2016


Day_135 : Thailand Disaster Chronology (2) 2013 – 2016

The collected information on Thailand natural disasters 2001-2011.
This is a tentative version.

Date Places(Provinces, etc) Disaster Type Situations
2013.06 Phuket, Ranong, Nan, Phang Nga, Trang, Satun, Krabi Flood Torrential rain has been constant in the south for around 3 or 4 days already, flooding streets and town centers. Outside the towns, many roads have been made impassable by mudslides and floods. The western coast of south Thailand suffered the most, especially the provinces of Phuket, Ranong, Nan, Phang Nga, Trang, Satun and Krabi. Six houses were damaged by mudslides in Nan province, with one person reported as missing.All seven districts in Satun Province have been declared a disaster zone after they had been hit by flash floods. There have been reports that as many as 9,000 homes have been affected.
2013.07.05 Phang-Nga Flood Nearly 13cm of rain has fallen in a 24 hour period on 4th July 2013 in the Phang-Nga province. Particularly badly affected was the Takua Pa district. Other areas of southern Thailand have also seen heavy rainfall. Floods and landslides killed  one person and many houses  and buildings were damaged in Phang-Nga.
2013.07.18 Trat, Ranong Flood Heavy rain has caused flooding in Trat and Ranong provinces. Over 500 residents of Trat province have been affected.
2013.08.01 Chiang Rai, Kanjanaburi, Tak, Nan, Payao, Sakon Nakorn, Prajinburi Flood The recent floods had affected nearly 20,000 homes across 7 provinces in Thailand. According to DDPM, 18,788 homes in Chiang Rai, Kanjanaburi, Tak, Nan, Payao, Sakon Nakorn and Prajinburi have been affected by flash floods as heavy rains continue raging across these provinces.
2013.09.17 30 provinces of Thailand Flood Two million people in 30 provinces of Thailand have been affected by floods since 17 September 2013.
2013.11.26 Surat Thani Flood Four districts in the Surat Thani province have also been declared disaster zones, with 4,070 households affected and 41 roads and 21 bridges left damaged or impassable.At least five people have reportedly died in the flood.
2013.12.05 Southern Thailand Flood Floods in Thailand’s South have intensified with heavy rains lashing towns and water levels rising. Water has been flowing down from nearby mountain ranges to Mueang district and affected approximately 16,500 households.
2013.12.07 Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Satun, Yala and Pattani, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Songkhla, Phatthalung, Trang, Narathiwat Flood On Saturday 7 December, Thailand’s Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Department announced that floods had started to recede in the seven affected of Prachuap Khiri Khan, Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Satun, Yala, and Pattani,the department also stated that flooding remains in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Songkhla, Phatthalung, Trang and Narathiwat provinces, affecting around 125,000 people.
2013.12.16 Southern, Central, and Northern Flood Thailand’s Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM) announced that the floods that had affected much of the country’s southern region have receded in 10 provinces, but remain in Phutthalung and Trang. The DDPM said that as many as 6,000 people are still affected by flooding in these two provinces.Northern and central areas of Thailand have been affected by flooding throughout the monsoon.Heavy rainfall around 21 November led to severe flooding across 12 provinces, resulting in 20 deaths. The worst affected area was Nakhon Si Thammarat province, where as many as 6 people died.
2013.12.16 Loei, Tak, Nan, Chiang Mai, Nakhon Phanom, Nong Bua Lamphu Cold Spell The cold spell has affected the north of the country, affecting over 1 million people in the six provinces of Loei, Tak, Nan, Chiang Mai, Nakhon Phanom, and Nong Bua Lamphu, all of which have been declared disaster zones as a result of the cold temperatures.
2014.01.13 Narathiwat Flood Floods have struck in the Su-ngai Kolok and Waeng districts of Narathiwat in Thailand following continuous rainfall throughout last week.The rainfall increased levels of the Buketa Canal until it eventually overflowed, flooding around 20 villages and leaving around 1,088 homes under 50cm to 100cm of water.
2014.05.05 Chaing Rai Earthquake An earthquake with a magnitude of 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the northern province of Chiang Rai at 6.08pm Monday, May 5.The epicenter was located at a point 9 km (6 mi) south of Mae Lao District, 27 km (17 mi) southwest of Chiang Rai, Thailand.Windows, walls, and roads as well as temples all suffered damage from the quake. It was the strongest earthquake ever recorded in Thailand according to National Disaster Warning Center. In Phan district of Chiang Rai, a road was split by serious cracks. A Buddha statue’s head at the Udomwaree Temple fell off due to the quake and a residential building of the temple suffered exterior cracks and ceiling damage.
2014.07.24 Sakon Nakhon, Prachin Buri, Si Sa Ket, Ubon Ratchathani,Yasothon Flood Thailand’s Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation(DDPM) stated earlier today that, after several days of steady rain, flooding is affecting the 5 provinces of Sakon Nakhon, Prachin Buri, Si Sa Ket, Ubon Ratchathani and Yasothon. Ubon Ratchathani saw over 80 mm of rain fall 24 hours between 22 and 23 July 2014. Sakon Nakhon province was one of the worst hit, where floods have affected around 4,000 families. Elsewhere, flooding has damaged homes and roads in Si Sa Ket and Ubon Ratchathani provinces. Access to several parts of Si Sa Ket has been difficult for the last few days. At one stage flood waters were so high the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) had to cut power supply in the Benchalak district as a safety measure.
2014.02 Buriram, Sakon Nakhon Drought Thailand’s northeastern provinces of Buriram and Sakon Nakhon are being plagued by the worst drought in decades and are in urgent need of assistance.
2014.07.10 Chiang Rai Flood, Landslide The northernmost province of Chiang Rai has been hit again by landslides and flash floods following three days of abundant raining. As many as a thousand families in 8 districts of the province have reportedly been afflicted.
2014.07.21 Northeastern Provinces Typhoon Rivers across several communities in northeastern Thailand have overflowed due to the effects of Typhoon Rammasun, which has caused heavy rains throughout the area.
2014.7.23 Sakon Nakhon, Prachin Buri, Si Sa Ket, Ubon Ratchathani, Yasothon Flood On 23 July, the 5 provinces of Sakon Nakhon, Prachin Buri, Si Sa Ket, Ubon Ratchathani and Yasothon were badly affected by flooding.
2014.07.30 Sakhon Nakhon, Ubon Ratchathani Flood Due to the heavy rainfall in the Northeast, flooding has occurred in Sakhon Nakhon and Ubon Ratchathani provinces,Thailand, affecting 19,183 households
2014.7.31 Amnat Charoen Flood The Mekong river in the north eastern Thai province of Amnat Charoen has overflowed and submerged several villages on 31 July 2014, damaging over 1,000 houses.
2014.8.21 Nan Flood Heavy rain in Nan province in northern Thailand caused local rivers to overflow earlier this week, flooding several districts in the province. Further flood warnings have been issued for 20 provinces, especially in northern and north eastern areas.Flooding has particularly affected the districts of Thung Chang, Muang and Song, where around 50 houses and areas of farmland have been damaged.
2014.09.01 17 Provinces Flood Thailand’s Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM) reported on Monday 01 September 2014 that at least 17 provinces have been affected by recent flooding. Six people have been killed and at least 1 person remains missing.
2014.09.05 Nan, Shkhothai, Chaiyaphum, Tak, Nakhonsawan Flood Due to heavy rainfall, several provinces in Northern Thailand experienced flooding. As of 5 September, the affected areas are 1. Nan Province: Nanoy and Namoen district 2. Shkhothai Province: Muang, Srisuehanalai Srinakorn and Tung Saleam. 500 houses are still inundated. 3. Chaiyaphum Province: 80 houses are submerged. 4. Tak Province 5. Nakhonsawan Province: 30 houses are inundated. Impact: 7404 families or (estimated) 15000 people 17479 ha agricultural fields damaged 3000 ha of rice field damaged.
2014.09.06 28 Provinces. Deaths occurred in Kamphaeng Phet, Mea Hong Son, Chiang Rai, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phayao, Phrae, and Sukhothai Provinces. Flood Thailand’s Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Department (DDPM) states 07 September 2014, that flooding that has affected at least 28 provinces in the country since late August, has resulted in the deaths of 10 people and 14,562 houses had been affected by the floods in over 700 villages.The deaths occurred in the provinces of Kamphaeng Phet (2), Mae Hong Son (2), Chiang Rai (2), Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phayao, Phrae and Sukhothai.
2014.09.29 Chiang Mai and Chai Nat Provinces Flood Due to continuous heavy rain, Fung District of Chiang Mai is affected by flood, Chai Nat province was also affected. Impact: 55houses damaged 94 houses affected in Chai Nat province.
2014.10.01 Chantaburi Province Flood Due to heavy rainfall, flood is affecting Chantaburi Province. Impact: 100 families affected.
2014.10.02 Chiang Mai and Chai Nat Provinces Flood Heavy rainfall has caused deadly floods in northern Thailand over the last few days. The heavy rain has moved south, to affect central and southern areas of the country.Chiang Mai Province faced continuous heavy rain and flash floods between 28 September and 01 October 2014. Three people tragically drowned in the flooding in Fang District. More than 50 homes in the district have been damaged by the floods. In Chai Nat Province, flooding was so severe that authorities had to make emergency rescues in Hunkha District. Nearly 100 homes have been damaged on the province.
2014.10.07 Petchaburi, Rachaburi, Prachuap khiri kham, Krabi, Satun, Surathani Flood Due to heavy rain since 6 October 2014, several provinces in central and south of Thailand have been affected provinces include: Petchaburi(6districts),Rachaburi(2 districts), Prachuap khiri kham, Krabi(2 districts), Satun(5districts), Surathani(2districts). Impact : more than 4700 families or more than 20000 people affected(estimated)
2014.10.20 Lampang Province Flood Heavy rain has caused the Lam Huai Mae River to overflow. Consequently, flood inundated more than 200 houses in Thoen District, Lampang Province. Impact: over 200 families were affected more than 200 houses were inundated.
2014.10.22 Lampang Province Flood Floods in 5 villages in Lampang Province, Thailand have affected 200 families. NNT (National News Bureau of Thailand) are reporting that the Lam Huai Mae Wa River overflowed its banks causing flooding in Thoen District in the northern province of Lampang, earlier today 22 October 2014.Around 200 families in 5 different villages in the area have been severely affected, although no injuries have been reported. Homes of the families are said to have been completely inundated and officials from Thailand’s Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Department (DDPM) are coordinating distribution of food, water and other supplies.
2014.11.07 Pattani, Nakhon si Thamamarat and Surat thani Flood Due to continuous heavy rainfall, flood was affecting several southern provinces including Pattani(Muang), Nakhon si Thamamarat (Phra phrom, Chang Klang) and Surat thani. Impact: 2408 households or 7237 people were affected 2000 acres of agricultural lands were inundated.
2014.11.10 Trang Flood Heavy rain has generated flashflood incident in Trang Province. The consecutive days of rain has created flooding in southern province. Impact: Over 200 families were affected in Trang 5,000 ha of farmland have been submerged.
2014.11.14 Trang, Nakhon Si Thammarat Flood Trang Province:Trang province has been one of the worst affected areas after persistent heavy rain over the last 4 days caused flash floods across several southern provinces.Around 1,000 villagers in Trang have been evacuated since the flooding began. Houses and farmland have been damaged. The flood water level was almost two meters high, according to NNT.

Nakhon Si Thammarat:At least 5 districts – Chawang, Chang Klang, Pipoon, Lan Ska, and Phra Phrom in Nakhon Si Thammarat experienced severe floods. More than 4,400 households and 12,000 people have been affected in the province.

2014.12.14 7 Provinces in the South Flood, Landslide Since 14 December 2014, Thailand’s seven provinces in the south have been affected by floods and landslides. Seven people died and three were injured.
2014.12.15 Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung Flood Floods in the southern Thai provinces of Nakhon Si Thammarat and Phatthalung have forced evacuations in as many as 50 villages, some of which are under more than 1 meter of water. One person is reported as missing after being swept away by the floods in Phrom Khiri district, Nakhon Si Thammarat.
2014.12.17 Narathiwat, Yala, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung Flood Narathiwat:National News Bureau Thailand (NNT) say that floods in Narathiwat have been caused by heavy rain over the last 4 days has and run-off from the Sankalakhiri mountain range flowing down to the Su-ngai Kolok River. Houses along the river have been inundated. Flooding has also affected over 300 families in the districts of Sukhirin, Waeng and Su-ngai Kolok.

Yala:Many low-lying areas of the province are already seeing some flooding, and more is expected.

Nakhon Si Thammarat and Phatthalung: Floods struck in the provinces of Nakhon Si Thammarat and Phatthalung. Two people have been reported as missing after being swept away in the floods – one in Nakhon Si Thammarat, the other in Phatthalung.

2014.12.19 Southern Provinces Flood Heavy rain and flooding has continued in southern Thailand and is now also affecting areas along the Thailand-Malaysian border. Several southern provinces in Thailand have been under water for the last week.Across the region, a total of four people has been reported as killed in the floods and 14,000 people evacuated (12,000 in Malaysia). Two people remain missing in the floods in Thailand.
2015.01.08 Bangkok Flood In Bangkok, commuters faced a Monday morning rush hour driving in flood water up to 50 cm deep in some areas.A heavy downpour and thunderstorm lasting 5 hours dumped over 100 mm of rain on the city in the early hours between 2 are and 5 am. Some schools and colleges have closed.
2015,04.07 8 Provinces Storm Seasonal storms pounded about 50 villages in 11 districts of eight provinces, damaging more than 900 houses.
2015.08.06 North, North East, and South
Nakhorn Phanom
Flood Several areas in the North, North East and South of Thailand have reportedly been flooded by overflowing rivers after several days of rainfall. In Nakhon Phanom, more than 3,000 homes and 30,000 rai of rice paddies have been inundated.
2015.08.06 Nakhon Phanom Flood In Nakhon Phanom, more than 3,000 homes and 30,000 rai of rice paddies have been inundated in Sri Songkram district after the Songkram River overflowed the embankment and flooded surrounding areas. Residents were forced out of their homes and had to take refuge on the street.
2016.03   Drought The worst drought in 50 years in being predicted for Thailand in 2016. The agricultural sector will bear the largest impact, as the quantities of many agricultural products fall, especially rice, tapioca, sugarcane, and sugar.
2016.06.21 Bangkok Flood Wide areas of Bangkok, Thailand, were flooded on 21 June after a period of heavy rain across the city.The flooding brought traffic to a standstill forced some schools and businesses to close. The Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation (DDPM) stated that heavy rains during the evening of 20 June caused flooding in 36 areas of Bangkok, leaving streets under 60cm of water in some areas.
2016.09.06 Phang-Nga Flood The floods have affected areas of Phang Nga Province.The worst hit area is the village of Ban Bang Yai Village in Taku Pa District, where at least 40 houses have been damaged and left without drinking water. Vehicles, crops, and livestock have also suffered damage. No injuries or fatalities have been reported, however.
2016.10.07 Nakornsawan Province Flood 3 people have been killed by floods in Nakornsawan province. Wide areas of farmland have been submerged and 27,000 houses inundated.Flooding is affecting a total of 14 provinces across the country.Many areas have reported persistent heavy rain over the last 2 weeks. Ayutthaya province in particular is seeing some severe flooding, with around 22,000 homes inundated as well as a number of important historical buildings and temples.

Source: ADRC, Reliefweb, BBC, JICA, etc. (The source will be indicated)

Day_134 : Thailand Disaster Chronology (1) 2001-2012

The collected information on Thailand natural disasters 2001-2011.
This is a tentative version.

Date Places(Provinces, etc) Disaster Type Situations
2001.8.21 North, upper central, northeastern and eastern provinces Flood A flash flood swept down a mountainside through villages in Lomsak district
death:164 people
damage estimate :24.4 million dollars
2001.12.24 Southern Provinces Flood Thousands of people in southern Thailand fled their houses after heavy rains triggered floods.
2002.4.29 The Thailand’s largest refugee camp near the Myanmar border Storm A freak tropical storm has killed five people at the refugee camp. The storm made damaged about 300 bamboo shelters as it tore through the camp.Around 40,000 Karen people live in shelters near the Myanmar border.
2002.9.3 Northern Provinces Heavy Rain At least 14 people were killed and more than 20 were missing after their makeshift houses on the banks of an overflowing stream collapsed after heavy rain.
Death:39 people
Damaged house: 150,000
2002.9.18 Northern Provinces Mud Slide Some 800 people narrowly escaped a huge mudslide in northern Thailand on Tuesday as it swept through three villages in a tangle of uprooted trees and destroyed buildings, a district official said.
2002.10.4 Bangkok Flood Residents of the Thai capital, Bangkok, are bracing themselves for severe flooding following forecasts that floodwaters coming from the north of the country.
2003.10.26 Eight Provinces Flood Five days of heavy monsoon rains have brought severe floods to Thailand, killing a 13-year-old boy, forcing hundreds of people from their homes and disrupting road and rail transport, officials said.
Dead: 1 person
Affected: at least 200,000 people
(in 8 provinces)
Evacuated: more than 1,600 people
2003.12.14 Southern Provinces Flood Floods in Thailand have killed at least eight people and damaged tens of thousands of homes.
2004.12.24 Krabi, Trang, PhangNa, Phuket, Ranong, Saturn Tsunami On 26 December 2004, Tsunami occurred off the Sumatra Island killed 5,395, affected 58,550, and whose total loss was US$ 399.78 million in Thailand
2005.8.31 Northern Provinces (Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Sorn Provinces) Flood Over 100,000 families have been affected by severe flooding in Northern Thailand in the middle of August. Torrential rains which earlier in August hammered Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Sorn inundated more than 4 500 villagers’ homes in these three provinces alone leaving 11 people dead and making several roads impassable to small vehicles.
2005.12.18 Southern Provinces Torrential monsoon rains Torrential monsoon rains have wreaked havoc across Thailand’s south, killing 12 people and leaving two missing in the past week, officials said on Sunday. Seven of the victims died in two mudslides.
2006.05.23 Northern Provinces Flood,Mud Slide Heavy monsoon rains unleashed flash floods and mudslides in northern Thailand which killed at least 10 people, left 47 missing and thousands homeless, officials said on Tuesday.
2006.10.10 43 provinces in the country’s north, north-east and central Thailand Flood More than 32 dead in Thai floods since August 2006, reported on October 10.
2007.04.14 Trang Flood Flash floods killed at least 23 holidaymakers and injured more than 20 at three waterfalls in the southern Thai province of Trang on Saturday as they celebrated the Thai New Year, disaster officials said.
2008.04.27 Thak Flood Rains have continued pouring in Thak province, Thailand at least four consecutive days. Over 1,000 people are currently homeless.
2008.8.15 Nakhon Phanom Flood The disaster prevention special command center in Nakhon Phanom province is in the midst of assessing the damage caused by inundation in 12 districts. More than 100,000 people have been affected by flooding. Meanwhile, the death toll has reportedly stood at 1.
2008.09.08 North and Northeast Provinces Flood Heavy downpours due to a low-pressure trough and the south-western monsoon in the past week have triggered more flash floods and inundated villages and farmland in north and northeast Thailand. According to disaster officials, five people have been killed, 114,345 (34,182 families) have been affected.
2008.10.01 Northern, north-eastern and central provinces Heavy Rain The death toll from floods triggered by heavy monsoon rains has risen to 23, while nearly 230,588 people have been treated for water-related illnesses and injuries.
2008.09.31-10.01 Si Sa Ket Province Typhoon Typhoon Mekkahla hit between 31 September and 1 October 2008. The cyclone caused torrential rains which killed 32, affected 2,864,484 and whose total loss was US$ 21.6 million including Vietnam.
2008.11.19 Southern Provinces Flood 201,434 people affected, 10 people died and 190 families homeless (685 persons) from heavy rain in southern Thailand.
2008.12.08 Yala Flood After heavy rains in southern Yala province, Thailand, the Disasters’ Prevention Special Command Centre in Yala has issued warnings on 8 December 2008 to the people in the area to be cautious of potential hazards and flash floods after over 3,000 local families being affected.
2009.11.07 Southern border provinces Flood The flooding which started in the southern border province in Thailand so far killed 10 people
2010.08.13 Lampang Flood The flood struck the northern province of Lampang on Friday night (13 August 2010) with the water level as high as one meter. Over 1,200 households and 36 villages in 7 districts have been affected.
2010.10.16 Nakhon Ratchasima Flash Flood Nakhon Ratchasima has been ravaged as flash floods wreak havoc in the Northeast and Central Plains following heavy weekend monsoon rains.
2011.03 47 Provinces Drought The Department of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Thailand announced drought in 47 provinces.
2011.03.27 Southern Provinces Flash Flood Since 23 March 2011 there has been a prolonged heavy rainfall causing flash floods in many provinces in the South.
2011.07-2012.02 Provinces of Northern, Northeastern and Central Thailand along the Mekong and Chao Phraya river Flood Severe flooding occurred during the 2011 monsoon season in Thailand, beginning at the end of July and ceasing mid-January 2012. The flooding affected the provinces of Northern, Northeastern and Central Thailand along the Mekong and Chao Phraya river basins, as well as parts of the capital city of Bangkok. It resulted in a total of 813 deaths, 9.5 million people affected and economic damage of USD40 billion.
2011.08.03 North and the northeast provinces Tropical Storm, Flood Tropical Storm Nock Ten has caused continuous rainfalls in the north and the northeast of Thailand, causing floods in 15 provinces.
2012.06.06 Surat Thani Heavy Rain, Flood Continuous rain has caused flooding in five districts in Surat Thani province of southern Thailand, affecting 8,500 households and over 27,000 residents.
2012.09.12 Northern Provinces Flood Thousands have fled their homes in Northern Thailand after heavy rain caused a major river to overflow at the start of September.

Source: ADRC, Reliefweb, BBC, JICA, etc. (The source will be indicated)

Day_130 : Natural Disasters in China (2) – Two Earthquake Disasters


Two Earthquakes
Yang Zhang William Drake, et al. (2016)* indicates interesting views on two earthquakes disaster recoveries, the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The point is, why the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake recovery was so rapid compared to the 1976’s earthquake.
However, the paper could add more about the total background changes of China such as society, economy, and politics. The china has changed dramatically after the 1976 from historical viewpoints.

The Tangshan earthquake is one of the deadliest disasters in the world and the Wenchuan earthquake is one of the top ten costliest disasters in the world also. Munich Re ranked the Wenchuan as the top four costliest disaster after the Japanese Tsunami (2011), the Hurricane Katrina (2005). and the Kobe Earthquake (1995). The number of deaths caused by the Tangshan is still controversial because of the Chinese government’s political climates at the time.

A Comparison of the two earthquakes

Yang Zhang William Drake, et al. (2016)

The Rapid Disaster Recovery after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake
Yang Zhang William Drake, et al. (2016) describes the following points, historical and socio-economic contexts, why the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake recovery was so rapid compared to the 1976’s earthquake.

[Historical context]

  1. The Chinese government drew lessons from its handling of the Tangshan earthquake recovery. The government emphasized the importance of planning for coordinated reconstruction.
  2. China had established a strong planning institution to support its rapid growth agenda since the economic reform began in the late 1970s. The contrast of recovery planning between the two earthquakes highlights the notion that a pre-existing planning institution and pre-existing policy documents that describe development visions for a disaster area.

[Socio-economic context]

  1. China’s ability to promptly fund the earthquake recovery was far superior in the 2000s. China’s annual GDP in the year prior to the Wenchuan earthquake was 3.494 trillion USD 2007, which was 22 times its GDP in 1975.
  2. The earthquake happened less than three months before the Beijing Olympic Games. It was in the government’s best interest to move swiftly with the response and recovery to ensure social stability for the Olympic Games.
  3. The global economic downturn of 2008 might have also played a role in speeding up the earthquake recovery. To stimulate the economy, heavy investment in the earthquake recovery became a convenient policy option.

However, many things can be added about the above points such as the acceptance of international aids (Day_95).

Day_95 : World Disaster Chronology 1976 (1)


This rapid recovery from Wenchuan reminds us the Japanese historical trends  from 1945 to 1959, especially after the Typhoon Isewan in 1959. The Haiti’s cases, 2010 Earthquake and 2016 Hurricane Matthew also can be found as the same analogy (The below related articles across the web).

The Meanings of the Lessons
We cannot experience the disasters so often, of course, we do not want to have disasters. This is why we should learn from the past disasters and this is what we can do all the time.

*Yang Zhang William Drake, et al. (2016) Disaster Recovery Planning after Two Catastrophes: The 1976 Tangshan Earthquake and the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 34(2):174-203



Day_129 : Natural Disasters in China (1) – Two Earthquake Disasters


The overviews of Natural Disasters in China are the followings:

1) Death numbers
Source: EM-DAT

2) Affected numbers
Source: EM-DAT

3) Damage costs
Source: EM-DAT

Natural disasters in China are very large scales reflected country’s population and geographical sizes. Also, we need to know that China has been a rapidly growing economy. We can confirm the normal historical trends of natural disasters from human sufferings to economic damages which this note already mentioned (Day_77). For instance, the top 10 deadliest natural disasters in China are all before 1970s. On the contrary, the top 10 costliest natural disasters in China are all after 1990s.

Day_77 : Historical trends of the damages caused by natural disasters

Two Earthquakes
Yang Zhang William Drake, et al. (2016)* indicates interesting views on two earthquakes disaster recoveries, the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The point is, why the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake recovery was so rapid compared to the 1976’s earthquake.
However, the paper could add the total background changes of China such as economy and politics. The china has changed dramatically after the 1976 from historical viewpoints.

A Comparison of the two earthquakes will be explained…..

*Yang Zhang William Drake, et al. (2016) Disaster Recovery Planning after Two Catastrophes: The 1976 Tangshan Earthquake and the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 34(2):174-203



Day_127 : World Disaster Chronology-1990-91

Date Place Disaster Type Situations
1990.01- Indonesia Heavy Rain, Flood Over 130(DM)
1990.03- Bangladesh Heavy Rain, Flood 170(DM)
1990.04- Africa, East Heavy Rain, Flood Over 140(DM)
1990.04.26 China, Qinghai Inland Earthquake M6.5, Over 120(DM) Landslide
1990.05- India Cyclone, Flood Over 3,000(DM)
1990.05.29 Peru, Central Inland Earthquake M6.5,130-200 (DM),Landslide
1990.06- Japan, Kyushu Heavy Rain, Flood 27(DM),Injured 80, Destroyed approx.500, Inundated over 42,000
1990.06.21 Iran, North Inland Earthquake 1990 Manjil–Rudbar earthquake*1),M7.3-7.7, 30,000-50,000(DM), destroyed several towns 
1990.07.16 The Philippines, Luzon Inland Earthquake 1990 Luzon earthquake*2), (M7.8),
1,700-2,400 (DM)
1990.08- China Heavy Rain, Flood Over 300(DM)
1990.08- The Philippines Typhoon, Flood 230(DM)
1990.09- Korea Heavy Rain, Flood Over 130(DM)
1990.09- Japan, Northeast Typhoon, Flood 40(DM), Injured 130, Destroyed approx.16,000, Inundation Over18,000
1990.10- Bangladesh Cyclone, Flood Over 3,000(DM)
1990.11- Tha Philippines Typhoon, Flood Over 350(DM)
1991.02.01 Afganistan Inland Earthquake M6.4,200-700(DM)
1991.04.22 Costa Rica Inland Earthquake M7.6, 70(D) with Panama
1991.04.29 USSR(Georgia) Inland Earthquake M7.0, Over100(DM)
1991.04- Bangladesh Cyclone, Flood 1991 Bangladesh cyclone*3), Over 139,000(DM). This disaster was among the deadliest tropical cyclones on record. 
1991.06- Japan, Kyushu Volcanic eruption Mt.Unzen Volcanic eruption*4),Pyroclastic flow,Over 40(D)
1991.06- The Philippines, Luzon Volcanic eruption Mt. Pinatubo Volcano eruption*5), 700-1000(DM)
1991.06- Pakistan Heat wave Over 300(DM)
1991.06- China Heavy rain, Flood Over 400(DM)
1991.07- India Heavy rain, Flood Over 900(DM)
1991.07- China Typhoon,Flood 200(DM)
1991.08- Korea Typhoon,Flood 100(DM)
1991.09- China Landslide Over 270(DM)
1991.09- Japan, all areas Typhoon,Flood 1991 Typhoon No.19, 62(DM)*6), Injured1,500, Destroyed approx.170,000, Inundation over 22,000
1991.10.20 India, North Inland Earthquake M6.8-7.0, 7702,000(DM)
1991.11- The Philippines, Central Typhoon, Flood Over 6,300(DM)*7)
1992.01- Bangladesh Cold Wave Over130(DM)

DM: The number of dead and missing.

1) Iran is one of the most vulnerable country on earthquake disasters.
The below Day_81 can be checked.
2) Buguio city was severely hit by this earthquake. The city is also vulnerable to landslide disasters. 2009 Typhoon Pepeng hit the Buguio city. There were some issues in this city. Urbanization is the one of the causes.
NIED natural disaster research report
3) Some past posts can be referred. The below Day_117 can be checked.
4) Some past posts can be referred.The below Day_65 can be checked.
5) A huge cloud of volcanic ash and gas rises above Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, on June 12, 1991. Three days later, the volcano exploded in the second-largest volcanic eruption on Earth in this century.Following this Mount Pinatubo’s cataclysmic June 15, 1991, eruption, thousands of roofs collapsed under the weight of ash made wet by heavy rains (see example in photo above). Ash deposits from the eruption have also been remobilized by monsoon and typhoon rains to form giant mudflows of volcanic materials (lahars), which have caused more destruction than the eruption itself(http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs113-97/).
6) Itsukushima Shrine, its complex is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was damaged.
7) The Ormoc region was inundated by Tropical Storm Uring.The city government recorded 4,922 deaths, 3,000 missing persons, 14,000 destroyed houses. We call this disaster “Ormoc Tragedy”

Day_81 : Earthquake disasters in Asia (1) – Iran

Day_117 : Bangladesh-Disasters, Lands, and Statistics (2)


Day_65 : 1991 Unzen Fugendake Volcano Eruption


Day_115 : Disaster Technology Websites

Introduce you two disaster technology websites. One is DRH Asia-Disaster Reduction Hyperbase. The other is Global DRR Technology.

1) DRH Asia
This site provides the qualified information about DRR technology. We can grasp the contents so easily. This makes it possible to transfer the DRR technology. The contents are coming from many Asian countries and reviewed by experts. The challenge is limited contents number.

The following is the example of the contents.
Earthquake Early Warning and its Application to Mitigate Human and Social Damages (Figure 1)

Figure 1

We can understand the quality of the contents and availability.

2) Global DRR Technology
This site focuses on an online Community of Practice(CoP) in Disaster Risk Reduction(DRR). The contents volume is limited, however, the site can be checked easily. Especially, the case study site is visually nice.

The below site is the example of the case study site. (Figure 2)

Figure 2




Day_112 : 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake and Disaster Prevention Day(Tentative)

September 1 is the Disaster Prevention Day in Japan. This is because of the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake. This quake made over 105,000 casualties* and gave huge impacts on a Japanese society. The Great Kanto Earthquake is the worst disaster in a Japanese history. Here, some points are picked up. First, the quake directly attacks the capital city, Tokyo. Second, the disaster killed so many people mainly by fire, not objects falling. Third, rumors made the disaster worse. Fourth, Tokyo has recovered first and strongly.
      With regard to the devastated areas, Tokyo and Kanagawa (Yokohama) populated areas, were severely affected by the quake. The epicenter was located near Oshima Island in Sagami Bay, South of Tokyo. In Yokohama, 90 percent of all homes were damaged and destroyed. The 60 percent of the city’s population became homeless (Brown University).
     Concerning to the fire, the time which the earthquake hit was 11:58, so the families had prepared for their lunches. Many families’ cooking stoves were overturned by the quake and make fires. The fire spread out with strong winds.
     In respect of the rumors, the rumors, especially about Korean such as “Korean do criminal activities and make social confusions” make the disaster more political. The Home Ministry declared martial law and ordered all sectional police chiefs to make maintenance of order and security a top. After the disaster, the radio became popular all over Japan. This is because of the disaster’s lessons.
     Concerning to the recovery, Shinpei Goto, Mayor of Tokyo, created and proceeded a reconstruction plan of Tokyo for building back better. The basic infrastructures of today’s Tokyo were built during the time. 

*death numbers were revised after the recent research from over 140,000 to 105,000 because there were several double countings.